woensdag, november 15, 2006

de "bolivariaanse revolutie" en haar historische achtergrond

Het is weer even geleden dat deze blog nog een teken van activiteit vertoonde. Dat heeft grotendeels te maken met het wachten op de foto's van mijn uitstapje naar Madrid, maar ook met een gebrek aan tijd/interessante artikels in de pers. Onderstaand opiniestuk in The Guardian van vandaag sluit wel mooi aan bij de Latijns-Amerikaanse week van animo StuGent, vooral bij het optreden van Alejandro Fleming (de Venezolaanse ambassadeur bij de EU en in België) in de Blandijn. Het verklaart een stukje van de "Bolivariaanse" zeal waarmee linkse kandidaten naar de kiezer trekken.

Latin America is preparing to settle accounts with its white settler elite

The political movements and protests sweeping the continent - from Bolivia to Venezuela - are as much about race as class

Richard Gott
Wednesday November 15, 2006
The Guardian


The recent explosion of indigenous protest in Latin America, culminating in the election this year of Evo Morales, an Aymara indian, as president of Bolivia, has highlighted the precarious position of the white-settler elite that has dominated the continent for so many centuries. Although the term "white settler" is familiar in the history of most European colonies, and comes with a pejorative ring, the whites in Latin America (as in the US) are not usually described in this way, and never use the expression themselves. No Spanish or Portuguese word exists that can adequately translate the English term.

Latin America is traditionally seen as a continent set apart from colonial projects elsewhere, the outcome of its long experience of settlement since the 16th century. Yet it truly belongs in the history of the global expansion of white-settler populations from Europe in the more recent period. Today's elites are largely the product of the immigrant European culture that has developed during the two centuries since independence.

The characteristics of the European empires' white-settler states in the 19th and 20th centuries are well known. The settlers expropriated the land and evicted or exterminated the existing population; they exploited the surviving indigenous labour force on the land; they secured for themselves a European standard of living; and they treated the surviving indigenous peoples with extreme prejudice, drafting laws to ensure they remained largely without rights, as second- or third-class citizens.

Latin America shares these characteristics of "settler colonialism", an evocative term used in discussions about the British empire. Together with the Caribbean and the US, it has a further characteristic not shared by Europe's colonies elsewhere: the legacy of a non-indigenous slave class. Although slavery had been abolished in much of the world by the 1830s, the practice continued in Latin America (and the US) for several decades. The white settlers were unique in oppressing two different groups, seizing the land of the indigenous peoples and appropriating the labour of their imported slaves.

A feature of all "settler colonialist" societies has been the ingrained racist fear and hatred of the settlers, who are permanently alarmed by the presence of an expropriated underclass. Yet the race hatred of Latin America's settlers has only had a minor part in our customary understanding of the continent's history and society. Even politicians and historians on the left have preferred to discuss class rather than race.

In Venezuela, elections in December will produce another win for Hugo Chávez, a man of black and Indian origin. Much of the virulent dislike shown towards him by the opposition has been clearly motivated by race hatred, and similar hatred was aroused the 1970s towards Salvador Allende in Chile and Juan Perón in Argentina. Allende's unforgivable crime, in the eyes of the white-settler elite, was to mobilise the rotos, the "broken ones" - the patronising and derisory name given to the vast Chilean underclass. The indigenous origins of the rotos were obvious at Allende's political demonstrations. Dressed in Indian clothes, their affinity with their indigenous neighbours would have been apparent. The same could be said of the cabezas negras - "black heads" - who came out to support Perón.

This unexplored parallel has become more apparent as indigenous organisations have come to the fore, arousing the whites' ancient fears. A settler spokesman, Mario Vargas Llosa, the Peruvian-now-Spanish novelist, has accused the indigenous movements of generating "social and political disorder", echoing the cry of 19th-century racist intellectuals such as Colonel Domingo Sarmiento of Argentina, who warned of a choice between "civilisation and barbarism".

Latin America's settler elites after independence were obsessed with all things European. They travelled to Europe in search of political models, ignoring their own countries beyond the capital cities, and excluding the majority from their nation-building project. Along with their imported liberal ideology came the racialist ideas common among settlers elsewhere in Europe's colonial world. This racist outlook led to the downgrading and non-recognition of the black population, and, in many countries, to the physical extermination of indigenous peoples. In their place came millions of fresh settlers from Europe.

Yet for a brief moment during the anti-colonial revolts of the 19th century, radical voices took up the Indian cause. A revolutionary junta in Buenos Aires in 1810 declared that Indians and Spaniards were equal. The Indian past was celebrated as the common heritage of all Americans, and children dressed as Indians sang at popular festivals. Guns cast in the city were christened in honour of Tupac Amaru and Mangoré, famous leaders of Indian resistance. In Cuba, early independence movements recalled the name of Hatuey, the 16th-century cacique, and devised a flag with an Indian woman entwined with a tobacco leaf. Independence supporters in Chile evoked the Araucanian rebels of earlier centuries and used Arauco symbols on their flags. Independence in Brazil in 1822 brought similar displays, with the white elite rejoicing in its Indian ancestry and suggesting that Tupi, spoken by many Indians, might replace Portuguese as the official language.

The radicals' inclusive agenda sought to incorporate the Indian majority into settler society. Yet almost immediately this strain of progressive thought disappears from the record. Political leaders who sought to be friendly with the indigenous peoples were replaced by those anxious to participate in the global campaign to exterminate indigenous peoples. The British had already embarked on that task in Australia and South Africa, and the French took part after 1830 when they invaded Algeria.

Latin America soon joined in. The purposeful extermination of indigenous peoples in the 19th century may well have been on a larger scale than anything attempted by the Spanish and the Portuguese in the earlier colonial period. Millions of Indians died because of a lack of immunity to European diseases, yet the early colonists needed the Indians to grow food and to provide labourers. They did not have the same economic necessity to make the land free from Indians that would provoke the extermination campaigns on other continents in the same era. The true Latin American holocaust occurred in the 19th century.

The slaughter of Indians made more land available for settlement, and between 1870 and 1914 five million Europeans migrated to Brazil and Argentina. In many countries the immigration campaigns continued well into the 20th century, sustaining the hegemonic white-settler culture that has lasted to this day.

Yet change is at last on the agenda. Recent election results have been described, with some truth, as a move to the left, since several new governments have revived progressive themes from the 1960s. Yet from a longer perspective these developments look more like a repudiation of Latin America's white-settler culture, and a revival of that radical tradition of inclusion attempted two centuries ago. The outline of a fresh struggle, with a final settling of accounts, can now be discerned.

· This article is based on the third annual SLAS lecture, given to the Society for Latin American Studies in October. Richard Gott is the author of Cuba: A New History (Yale University Press)

1 opmerking:

THIRD WORLD WAR zei

POLITICAL MENACE OF SETTLER COLONIALISM IN INDIA BOLIVIA ECUADOR PERU MEXICO: by KALKI GAUR
Director: Institute of Geopolitics, Wednesday November 15, 2006 Washington DC 11:00 AM.
(1) BROWN SETTLER COLONIALISTS: Colonial rulers in India, Andean and Central America implanted traitor political leadership, bureaucracy and Judiciary that continued to protect and promote the interests of the former colonial rulers, colonial civilization to the detriment of the national interests of their respective indigenous civilization, culture, religion and society. The rise of Evo Morales, the first Aymara Indian President of Bolivia highlighted the fact that Bolivia became independent in true spirit only after the inauguration of Evo Morales. Similarly, India became truly independent only during the government of Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee. India continued to be under foreign civilization rule during the government of prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru, the self-proclaimed last true brown Englishman of India. The true politics of India not that of class conflict but the clash of civilization, where Hindu Civilization in India, Inca Civilizations of Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador and the Maya and Aztec civilizations of Mexico and Guatemala are under assault led by brown Settler Colonialists that continued to promote the political, economic, racial, religious and social interests of the Settler Colonialism even after these countries supposedly became independent.
(2) SETTLER COLONIALISTS OF INDIA BOLIVIA PERU ECUADOR MEXICO GUATEMALA: India presently led by traitors to Hindu Civilization that continued to promote the civilization and religious interests of British colonialists and Papacy at great harm to the civilization interests of Hindu India and Hinduism even after independence in 1947. Similarly the Settler Colonialists of Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Guatemala and Mexico continued to undermine the majority populations, the indigenous people, indigenous culture, religion and civilization. Hinduism is as much under assault of the Brown Settler Colonialists of India as Inca, Maya and Aztec civilization is under assault in Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Guatemala and Mexico. Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru proudly declared himself the last Brown Englishman to rule India. Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee created a similar change in American ruling elite as Aymara Indian Evo Morales created in Bolivian politics, even when settler colonialists lurking in the coalition group sought to sabotage the attempt of Atal Behari Vajpayee to restore Hindu Civilization to its pivotal role in the scheme of affairs in India. The opposition of the pro-Christian Congress Party, the Communist Party Marxist, and the plethora of anti-Hindu political parties represent the attack on indigenous Indian Civilization in India. It is no different than the pro-Papacy, pro-white mestizo ruling elite in South America of mixed ancestry present to the indigenous Inca, Maya, Aztec Indian civilization, religion, culture and languages in Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, Guatemala, Mexico, Andean and Central America to this date. India needs a revolution to eradicate the dominance and influence of pro-Christianity Settler Colonialists that continue to take pride in their anti-Hinduism political and social agenda. Just as Brown Mestizos of Andean and Central America of mixed Indian and European descent united in their defense of the social and political interests of Settler Colonialism, similarly the brown Englishmen of the Congress Party, Communist Party and plethora of Socialist parties united in their defense of anti-Indian Settler Colonialism and they all could be denounced as Brown Settler Colonialists of Indian politics. Had Atal Behari Vajpayee not exploded Indian Atom Bomb in May 1988 the Settler Colonialists of India would have openly aligned with the enemies of India, to deny India its nuclear capability. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh in 1991 scuttled the evil economic conspiracy of Settler Colonialist Socialists to make India economically poor. In 1998, Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee scuttled the evil conspiracy of Settler Colonialists to make India militarily vulnerable. Perhaps someday the patriotic Indians would acquire political power in India and use their power to confiscate the property and assets of all Settler Colonialists and their descendants that shackled India after its independence in 1947. Perhaps all Settler Colonialists and their descendants should be expelled from India to the lands of their colonial masters in Europe or China.
(3) CLASH OF RACES & RELIGION MORE THAN CLASH OF CLASSES: Political movements in Hispanic South America are the clash of races as well as clash of religion. The pro-white ruling elite created the class conflicts and class wars in Andean America and Central America primarily to maintain the political hegemony of the minority white populations. The unmixed indigenous people outnumber unmixed whites and mixed mestizo population in Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, South Mexico and Guatemala. The unmixed indigenous people are rising in revolt and capturing the political power, because the population of white Christians in South America and Europe is on fast decline worldwide. Just as India became independent in 1947, when Hindu Indian led government was sworn into power in Delhi, similarly Bolivia became independent only when Aymara Indian Evo Morales sworn in as the President of Bolivia. Only those countries in the Caribbean and South America are independent as are led by non-white indigenous leadership. Brown Latin America is preparing for a racial showdown with white ruling elite implanted into corridors of power by European colonial powers and Papacy. If Papacy continues to take side with the pro-White Mestizo ruling elite in Southern and Latin America then the indigenous peoples might even reject the Roman Catholic Church and reinstate the ancient gods and goddesses of Inca, Maya and Aztec religions and reject Christianity. Aymara President Evo Morales of Bolivia would do Spain a great favor if he confiscated the property of all unmixed white Hispanic residents of Bolivia and expelled them to Spain to save Spain from population decline. Latin America is Preparing to Settle Accounts with its White Settler Elite. In the article British journalist Richard Gott argued that the "political movements and protests sweeping the continent - from Bolivia to Venezuela - are as much about race as class." Latin America is preparing to settle accounts with its white settler elite. The political movements and protests sweeping the continent - from Bolivia to Venezuela - are as much about race as class. The pro-white Colonial-Settlers promoted Socialism and ignited class wars to perpetuate the economic and political hegemony of the Hispanic white colonialists in Andean and Central America. Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, Congress Party and Indian Communist party and socialists played the same role in post-independent India. In light of this logic only when Hindu leadership is firmly entrenched into power in India that India could be called truly free.
(3) EVO MORALES SHOULD CONFISCATE THE PROPERTY OF ALL WHITES IN BOLIVIA: The highly civilized Inca, Maya and Aztec people have more rights than the Arab Wahhabi Bedouin have in taking full control over their lands and reinstate the religion of their ancestors and expel Christianity and Papacy from Hispanic America. Just as barbarian Arabian Wahhabi Bedouin have taken over the economic, political and religious control in Saudi Arabia and Arabian Peninsula, similarly the Aymara Indians in Bolivia and indigenous peoples in Peru, Mexico, Guatemala, Ecuador have every legal right to force white residents and Papacy to toe the line of Indigenous peoples of South America. Just as Hindu Indians ejected the white Christians from position of power in politics, economy and culture after the independence, similarly the Bolivia’s Aymara Indians have every right to confiscate the property of all unmixed whites in Bolivia and force Papacy to toe the line of Indigenous civilization and Inca religion in Bolivia. The recent explosion of indigenous protest in Latin America, culminating in the election this year of Evo Morales, an Aymara Indian, as president of Bolivia, has highlighted the precarious position of the white-settler elite that has dominated the continent for so many centuries. Although the term "white settler" is familiar in the history of most European colonies, and comes with a pejorative ring, the whites in Latin America (as in the US) are not usually described in this way, and never use the expression themselves. No Spanish or Portuguese word exists that can adequately translate the English term.
(4) ONLY EVO MORALES LED BOLIVIA IS TRULY INDEPENDENT COUNTRY: Only such Latin American countries that are led by indigenous peoples can be called independent countries. Latin America is traditionally seen as a continent set apart from colonial projects elsewhere, the outcome of its long experience of settlement since the 16th century. Yet it truly belongs in the history of the global expansion of white-settler populations from Europe in the more recent period. Today's elites are largely the product of the immigrant European culture that has developed during the two centuries since independence. The indigenous people of Andean and Latin America outnumber the unmixed whites and pro-white mixed mestizo populations. It is high time that political, economic and military power is exercised by the brown indigenous populations rather than by whites or pro-white mixed mestizo people. The characteristics of the European empires' white-settler states in the 19th and 20th centuries are well known. The settlers expropriated the land and evicted or exterminated the existing population; they exploited the surviving indigenous labor force on the land; they secured for themselves a European standard of living; and they treated the surviving indigenous peoples with extreme prejudice, drafting laws to ensure they remained largely without rights, as second- or third-class citizens.
(5) EVIL WHITE SETTLER COLONIALISM: The Settler Colonialism in India continued to harm the civilization interests of Hindu India through the Indian Administrative Services, Congress Party and Communist Party. The Papacy created a Christian network in Indian corridors of power to keep such Hindu Indians of political power as sought to promote rise of India as economic, military and political power. The white settler colonialism in Indian Foreign Service cadre scuttled imperial designs of post-independent India. President Evo Morales should lead the peoples of Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Guatemala and Southern Mexico to decolonize these counties from evil “Settler Colonialism.” Latin America shares these characteristics of "settler colonialism", an evocative term used in discussions about the British Empire. Together with the Caribbean and the US, it has a further characteristic not shared by Europe's colonies elsewhere: the legacy of a non-indigenous slave class. Although slavery had been abolished in much of the world by the 1830s, the practice continued in Latin America (and the US) for several decades. The white settlers were unique in oppressing two different groups, seizing the land of the indigenous peoples and appropriating the labor of their imported slaves.
(6) WHITE SETTLER COLONIALISTS: Andean America, Mexico, Latin America need to expel white settler colonialists from corridors of power to enthrone indigenous people and indigenous civilization take political and economic control of their nations. A feature of all "settler colonialist" societies has been the ingrained racist fear and hatred of the settlers, who are permanently alarmed by the presence of an expropriated underclass. Yet the race hatred of Latin America's settlers has only had a minor part in our customary understanding of the continent's history and society. Even politicians and historians on the left have preferred to discuss class rather than race. The Marxism, Socialism and Communism had been the Semite plot to justify the destruction of the indigenous civilizations. The leftist and communist uprisings in Peru, Guatemala, Bolivia and Ecuador had been the plot of the white settler colonialists to deny the majority unmixed indigenous populations take political control of their societies, even when they outnumbered unmixed white settlers as well mixed mestizo populations.
(7) CHAVEZ ALLENDE PERON: Hugo Chavez, Salvadore Allende and Juan Peron advocated the rights of the indigenous people and for this they were ostracized by the white supremacists. President Hugo Chavez is of mixed Indian and black descent, also known as Mullato. In Venezuela, elections in December 2006 will produce another win for Hugo Chávez, a man of black and Indian origin. Much of the virulent dislike shown towards him by the opposition has been clearly motivated by race hatred, and similar hatred was aroused the 1970s towards Salvador Allende in Chile and Juan Perón in Argentina. Chilean President Salvadore Allende promoted the economic and political interests of “Rotos,” meaning “broken ones of indigenous descent” the Chilean underclass of indigenous Indians. Allende's unforgivable crime, in the eyes of the white-settler elite, was to mobilize the rotos, the "broken ones" - the patronizing and derisory name given to the vast Chilean underclass. The indigenous origins of the rotos were obvious at Allende's political demonstrations. Dressed in Indian clothes, their affinity with their indigenous neighbors would have been apparent. The same could be said of the cabezas negras - "black heads" - who came out to support President Juan Perón. Peron advocated the rights of the Negroes in Argentina, which raised alarm among white Settler colonialists of Argentina, with predominantly white population.
(8) CIVILIZATION VS BARBARISM: In India the Communist Party of India and Congress Party have historically promoted the interests of Settler Colonialists and Papacy by conspiring to depict Hindu civilization as barbarism. This unexplored parallel has become more apparent as indigenous organizations have come to the fore, arousing the whites' ancient fears. A settler spokesman, Mario Vargas Llosa, the Peruvian-now-Spanish novelist, has accused the indigenous movements of generating "social and political disorder", echoing the cry of 19th-century racist intellectuals such as Colonel Domingo Sarmiento of Argentina, who warned of a choice between "civilisation and barbarism". It is no accident that BJP leader Lal Krishna Advani sought to convince Bhartiya Janata Party that Hindus do not constitute a vote bank in Hindu India. Former Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru boasted that he is a last Englishman to rule India.
(9) PRO-SETTLER COLONIALISM ELITES OF INDIA: British implanted Settle Elites into position of power in post-1947 India to ensure that political and bureaucratic leadership of India continued to promote the interests of Papacy and Christian civilization to the detriment of Hindu Civilization. The obsession of Indian Congress Party and Communist Party with every thing European including religion or ideology exposed their anti-Hindu pro-colonialism roots in post-independent India, especially in 21st century India. The Settler Elites of Latin America and India after independence were obsessed with all things European and Christian. They traveled to Europe in search of political models, ignoring their own countries beyond the capital cities, and excluding the majority from their nation-building project. Along with their imported liberal ideology came the racialist ideas common among settlers elsewhere in Europe's colonial world. This racist outlook led to the downgrading and non-recognition of the black population, and, in many countries, to the physical extermination of indigenous peoples. In their place came millions of fresh settlers from Europe.
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