woensdag, februari 10, 2021

REFERENCE ENTRY: "The Peace of Utrecht (1713)" in Michael KOCSIS (ed.), The Global Encyclopedia of Territorial Rights (Heidelberg: Springer, 2020)


(image source: Springer)

The Peace of Utrecht consisted of several bilateral treaties concluded between 1713 and 1715 in Utrecht, in the Dutch Republic. These treaties ended the War of the Spanish Succession, which originated in the decease of Charles II (1661-1700), the last Habsburg king of the composite Spanish monarchy. These treaties did not involve Emperor Charles VI nor the Holy Roman Empire, who concluded peace separately with Louis XIV of France at the Peace Treaties of Rastatt (6 March 1714; Dumont 1731, 415-423) and Baden (7 September 1714, 436-444). The Peace of Utrecht was based on a partition of the Spanish monarchy, and thus on the balance of power between the Bourbon and Habsburg dynasties. Britain played a seminal role, and established its maritime supremacy to the detriment of its former ally, the Dutch Republic. Charles VI of Habsburg and Philip V of Bourbon, who had been contenders for Charles II’s succession, only concluded a final peace treaty in 1725. The Peace of Utrecht furthered the spread of Most Favoured Nations-clauses in bilateral Treaties of Trade and Navigation, and assured Britain of Gibraltar, Minorca, Acadia and Newfoundland. 

(read the entry here: DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-68846-6_611-1)

maandag, januari 25, 2021

ARTICLE: Justice and equality for all? Proportional representation in Belgium and France (1883-1921) (Seqûëncia XLI (2020), nr. 86, 28-62

(image source: seqüência)



Whereas 19th century Belgium is traditionally framed as heavily dependent on France, this image ought to be nuanced for its political system. During what Pierre Rosanvallon named the transnational ‘proportional moment’ (1899-1914), the introduction of Proportional Representation in parliamentary elections generated a French interest in Belgium as the ‘electoral laboratory of Europe’. Arguments raised in the French Chambre des Députés were similar to those used in Belgian Parliament. The present article addresses the structural differences between the electoral debate in both states. Whereas Belgian constitutional doctrine adapted smoothly to the introduction of proportionality (Oscar Orban/Paul Errera) and held a moderate position bordering on that of Hans Kelsen, French doctrine was divided between the Parisian Adhémar Esmein, who defended the majority system as the bedrock of republicanism, and provincial professors of constitutional law, who had corporatist ideas, or were in favour of judicial review (Joseph-Barthélémy, Léon Duguit). Raymond Carré de Malberg’s condemnation of proportional representation as impossible, or as the stepping-stone to direct democracy, ought to be situated within this context.

Read the full article here: DOI 10.5007/2177-7055.2020v41n86p28

woensdag, december 30, 2020

BOOK REVIEW: Leos Müller, Neutrality in World History (Comparativ:Zeitschrift für Globalgeschichte und vergleichende Gesellschaftsforschung VI (2019), 213-216


(image source: Comparativ)

I published a review of Leos Müller's insightful Neutrality in World History (Routledge, 2018) for the special issue "Narrating World History after the Global Turn: The Cambridge World History" of the journal Comparativ: Zeitschrift für Globalgeschichte und vergleichende Gesellschaftsforschung (ISSN 0940-3566).

Read more on the journal's website.

donderdag, december 17, 2020

CHAPTER: “Peace and Law”. In: I. DINGEL, M. ROHRSCHNEIDER, I. SCHMIDT-VOGES, S. WESTPHAL & J. WHALEY (Hrsg.). Handbuch Frieden im Europa der Frühen Neuzeit. Peace in Early Modern Europe. A Handbook [Reference] (Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter Oldenbourg, 2021), pp. 113-130. ISBN 9783110588057

(image: cover; source: DeGruyter)

Peace is a political construct in the early modern period. War was viewed as a process whereby two sovereign states pursued their rights by violence or artifice. Domestic and international law were intertwined in legal doctrine. Authors of natural law-treatises incorporated an ought-dimension in their writings to describe the framework in which sovereigns should act according to a systematic analysis of a morally established hierarchy. This chapter first provides an elementary overview of sources and historiographical traditions (I). Second, it presents the classical canon of doctrine, from Spanish neo-scholastics (Vitoria) to so-called positivism (Martens), as it developed in relation to the broader intellectual, religious and institutional context as Humanism, Enlightenment, confessionalisation, and the Empire shaped thinking about war and peace (II). Finally, the chapter offers a brief overview of the practical use of legal arguments: treaty collections and repositories of pamphlets were used inpolitical practice in conjunction with classical authors such as Gentili, Grotius or Pufendorf (III).
More information with DeGruyter. Publication expected in October 2020. (DOI 10.1515/9783110591316-006). 

(update: published 7 December 2020)

woensdag, oktober 28, 2020

INTERVIEW: Laïcité en corona-crisis in Frankrijk (Radio 1, De Wereld Vandaag)


(bron afbeelding: deboomhut.be)

Ik werd vandaag geïnterviewd door Xavier Taveirne in De Wereld Vandaag (Radio 1). Het gesprek kan hier herbeluisterd worden.

vrijdag, oktober 23, 2020

OPINIE: Samuel Paty verenigt Frankrijk rond de Republiek (De Morgen.be, 22 oktober 2020)

(bron afbeelding: De Morgen)

Ik schreef een stuk voor De Morgen over de gebeurtenissen en reacties in Frankrijk van de afgelopen dagen.

Eerste paragraaf:

De barbaarse moord op leerkracht geschiedenis Samuel Paty wordt wereldwijd gezien als een aanval op de vrijheid van meningsuiting. Dat is terecht, maar de specifieke Franse context is ook belangrijk. Leerkrachten zoals Paty genieten prestige als ‘instituteurs de la nation’. Zij maken kinderen tot burgers van de Republiek, en putten daar hun fierheid uit. Een carrière als vastbenoemd leerkracht na staatsexamen is nog steeds voor veel Franse studenten een eerbaar carrièrepad, ondanks de beperkte verloning. Toppolitici als Georges Pompidou en Lionel Jospin waren kinderen van onderwijzers, en hebben zelf les gegeven.

Lees verder op de site van de krant

donderdag, september 03, 2020

CHAPTER: "Portalis le jeune et le droit des gens" in: Raphaël CAHEN & Nicolas LAURENT-BONNE (dir.), Joseph-Marie Portalis. Diplomate, magistrat et législateur (Aix-en-Provence: PUAM, 2020), 153-180, ISBN 978-2-7314-1174-4

(image source: PUAM)

Joseph-Marie Portalis, who presided over the French Court of Cassation as its first president for 23 years, never published a global treatise on the law of nations, but had a strong interest in the law of nature and the law of nations. Hence, two of his publications can inform us on his deeper-rooted convictions. One is his famous report presented to the Académie des Sciences Morales et Politiques in 1840 on the prize question concerning the development of the law of nations since the Peace of Westphalia. A second example is his treatise on the nature of war, presented at the Academy during the Crimean War and published in 1856 by Vergé. I argue that national sovereignty, religion and a dislike of the perceived excesses of 18th century doctrine are essential to understand Portalis "the younger", even if he does not escalate his thinking to the likes of de Maistre.
(more on the book here)